Notes: All timings are represented in 24-hour notation in local time of New Delhi, India with DST adjustment (if applicable).
Hours which are past midnight are suffixed with next day date. In Panchang day starts and ends with sunrise.
Vamana Jayanti is celebrated as the birth anniversary of the Vamana Avatar of Lord Vishnu. It is observed on the Dwadashi Tithi of Bhadrapada Shukla Paksha. As per the Bhagwat Purana, Vamana was the fifth Avatar out of Dashavatara of Lord Vishnu and His first incarnation in the Treta Yuga. After the first four Avatars in the animal form, namely, Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar) and Narasimha (lion), Vamana was the first Avatar of Lord Vishnu in the human form. Vamana was born in Treta Yuga to Goddess Aditi and Rishi Kashyapa on the Dwadashi Tithi of Bhadrapada Shukla Paksha during Abhijit Muhurat when the Shravana Nakshatra was prevailing.
Lord Vishnu incarnated as Vamana to restore the reign of God Indra on Swarga Loka. King Bali, a great devotee of Lord Vishnu, overthrew Indra and established himself as the king of Swarga Loka. Despite being the Vishnu devotee and a munificent king, Bali was cruel and proud. He wielded his powers to threaten the Gods and Brahmins. By abusing his powers on Gods and Humans alike, the invincible king Bali expanded his kingdom and became the king of Swarga Loka, Bhu Loka and Patala Loka.
Indra, after being dethroned from his own kingdom, along with other Deva approached Lord Vishnu for help. Lord Vishnu assured Indra by saying that He would take birth as the son of Aditi and Kashyapa, in the form of dwarf Brahmin to save the three Loka from the cruelties of Bali.
Lord Vishnu, to fulfil His promise, incarnated as Vamana or a dwarf monk, approached King Bali where the later was performing Ashvamedha Yagya. Vamana asked 3 steps of land as Bhiksha from Bali, to which Bali readily agreed. Vamana immediately transformed into a gigantic form and measured the whole earth in one stride. In the second stride, He measured the heaven. When Vamana Dev was about to take the third step, Bali realized that the dwarf monk was no other than Lord Vishnu Himself and for the third stride, offered his head. To honor the benevolence of His devotee, instead of killing Bali, Lord Vishnu pushed him to the Patala Loka or netherworld. Lord Vishnu also granted a boon to Bali, which allowed him to visit his subjects on Earth once a year. The annual homecoming of king Bali is celebrated in Kerala on Onam and in rest of the country on Bali Pratipada.
On the day of Vamana Jayanti, Lord Vishnu is worshipped in his Vamana Avatar. On this day, Panchopachara or Shodashopachara Puja of golden or clay idol of Vamana is performed in the morning. Fast is also observed on Vamana Jayanti. After performing the Puja in the evening, Vamana Jayanti Vrat Katha is narrated and the fast is broken with Prasad. Donation of rice, curd and Mishri is also given on this day. The significance of Vamana Jayanti increases multiple times if it coincides with the Shravana Nakshatra.
Vamana Jayanti is also known as Vamana Dwadashi.