Dhunuchi Dance is associated with Durga Worship in West Bengal. To appease Goddess Durga, devotees perform Dhunuchi along with the rhythmic beats of Dhak (ढाक) during Durga Puja. Dhunuchi Dance is usually performed on Shashthi Tithi during the evening Aarti. The devotee who performs it known as Dhanucchi who balances the earthen bowl containing burning incense either with his hands or on his forehead or in his mouth.
Dhunuchi Dance is called Dhunuchi because it is performed with Dhunachi (धुनाची). Dhunachi is a native Indian incense burner used during Aarti. The Dhunachi has a flared shape and held by a stem and it has a large cavity at the top. Dhunachi is traditionally made of earthenware so that heat is insulated from the handle and it can be hold in arms for long duration without any discomfort. Dhunachi is lit by placing burning coal at the bottom, which ignites a layer of slow-burning coconut husk, on which incense (usually camphor) is sprinkled.
In Eastern India especially in West Bengal, Dhunuchi Nritya is very common during Durga Puja. Dhunuchi dance is performed with two Dhunachi in hands (with single Dhunachi in each hand) along with the frenzy beat of Bengali country drums known as Dhak. In many communities, Dhunuchi competitions are organized and some dancers perform Dhunuchi dance with as many as three Dhunachi by holding third Dhunachi between the teeth.